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泰國學生運動愈演愈烈,年輕一代用動漫和奶茶反抗政府

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發表於 2020-8-22 18:02:48 | 顯示全部樓層 |閱讀模式
2020年 8月 12日
BBC 中文網


圖片版權WASAWAT LUKHARANG/BBC THAI  幾周來,數以千計的泰國年輕人聚集到曼谷街頭,敦促泰國軍方退出政壇。

他們很年輕,很生氣,他們要求改變。

數周以來,儘管政府禁止大規模集會,但數以千計的泰國年輕人仍聚集到曼谷街頭。許多人穿著端莊的校服,舉著流行的動漫形象,他們敦促泰國軍方退出政壇。
上周末和周一(8月10日),有更多示威者加入進來。他們希望向軍方出身的總理巴育施加更多壓力,向兩名被短暫拘留的年輕抗議領袖表達支持。
抗議活動在曼谷和其他城市的學校和大學校園快速蔓延。示威者們甚至越來越多地提及君主制這一在泰國高度敏感的話題。在最近一次集會上,發言人呼籲進行改革。
BBC記者陳煒斯(Yvette Tan)報導說,總體來看,抗議者們的訴求仍圍繞三個方面:解散議會、起草新憲法以及要求當局停止恐嚇批評者。

壓抑的青年
泰國政治動蕩和抗議歷史由來已久,但以往的歷次抗議,主要由支持和反對前總理他信(Thaksin Shinawatra)的兩股勢力「紅衫軍」和「黃衫軍」的對抗引發。
儘管有著優美的風景和東南亞地區較發達的經濟,但泰國對於言論和秩序的控制傳統,讓這個國家要求民主的呼聲相比之下非常孱弱。


圖片版權GETTY IMAGES  今年2月,在一個受歡迎的反對黨被當局下令解散後,新一輪抗議浪潮開始了。

但在今年2月,在一個受歡迎的反對黨被當局下令解散後,新一輪抗議浪潮開始了。這一次,與以往的抗議有所不同。
6年前,時任皇家陸軍總司令的巴育·佔奧差(Prayut Chan-ocha)策劃了一次不流血的軍事政變,推翻了前總理英拉(Yinglak Chinnawat)的看守政府。他起草了新的憲法,擴大軍方權利。
2019年3月,泰國舉行了軍方掌權以來的首次選舉。對於許多年輕人和首投族來說,這被視為是經歷了多年軍事統治後一次變革的機會。但軍方採取多項措施鞏固其政治角色,巴育重新出任總理。
親民主的未來前進黨(FFP)以其富有人格魅力的領袖塔納通·宗龍倫吉(Thanathorn Juangrungruangkit)獲得了第三大席位,尤其受到首次參加選舉的年輕選民的歡迎。
但今年2月,泰國法院裁定未來前進黨收到了塔納通提供的一筆貸款,這被認為是一筆違法捐贈,法院裁定解散未來前進黨。



圖片版權GETTY IMAGES 泰國總理巴育從2014年開始掌權。

法院的裁決引發了數千人加入街頭抗議活動,但由於新冠疫情的限制措施,抗議活動暫時平息。
今年6月,一位知名民主活動人士失蹤,讓事態再次升溫。
自2014年以來一直流亡柬埔寨的萬查勒·塞薩西(Wanchalearm Satsaksit)據報道當街被抓,並被塞進一輛車裏。
抗議者指責泰國當局策劃了對他的綁架,警方和政府對此予以否認。
政府副發言人拉查達·德納迪雷克(Rachada Dhnadirek)對路透社說,「我們不希望看到暴力或言論超出法律的範圍。」


圖片版權THAI NEWS PIX  學生們打開手機閃光燈表示抗議。

倉鼠和奶茶
瑪希敦大學(Mahidol University)政治學教授潘查達·西裏文納布(Punchada Sirivunnabood)說,這些事件的結合已推動了新一輪抗議浪潮。
「學生們覺得政府的做法並不民主。他們想要一個公平的政府,」她對BBC說。
對多年軍事統治感到失望的抗議者現在要求當局起草憲法、解散內閣、總理下台,並要求當局結束對人權活動人士的恐嚇。
根據泰國的新冠疫情緊急狀態,抗議活動在理論上是被禁止的,違反這一禁令將被判處兩年監禁。
這場運動在很大程度上沒有領袖,但由一個名為「自由青年」(Free Youth)的組織推動。


圖片版權GETTY IMAGES  日本動畫角色哈姆太郎現已變成了叛逆的象徵。

悉尼大學(University of Sydney)的艾姆·辛朋(Aim Sinpeng)博士表示,這個組織「鬆散地由一些大學生社團和附屬團體組成……(沒有)特意設立領導人」。
她表示,泰國的抗議者們從近期香港的抗議活動中吸取了教訓,「這些團體代表著自由的個人,他們團結在一起,而不是被特定組織或政黨牽引」。
泰國、香港和台灣的一些支持民主和反對強權的抗議者甚至開始用三個地方都喜歡的經典飲料——奶茶,來稱呼自己為「奶茶同盟」。
泰國人還找到了一些富有創意的,有時甚至是異想天開的抗議方式。
例如,一隻日本倉鼠的角色現已變成了叛逆的象徵。
抗議者採用了日本電視動畫哈姆太郎(Hamtaro)的主題曲,並修改歌詞,將其作為反政府歌曲。
其中一句歌詞「最喜歡的東西,是向日葵的種子」被改成了「最喜歡的東西,是納稅人的錢」。


圖片版權GETTY IMAGES  抗議者豎起三指敬禮,這一動作來自《饑餓遊戲》系列電影。

抗議者還豎起三指敬禮,這一動作來自《饑餓遊戲》(Hunger Games)系列電影,是反極權與獨裁的象徵。
「泰國年輕人總是用更具顛覆性的流行文化形式表達不滿,」辛朋博士說。
「因為多年來生活在壓抑的環境中,並不總是允許言論自由。(他們)不得不一直尋找有創意的方法來繞過各種審查制度。」
和曼谷一樣,在社交媒體的推動下,一些泰國小城市也組織起了小規模的「快閃」式抗議活動,這種活動易於組織,也可以迅速散去。
「推特在過去幾年裏確實普及了,」辛朋博士說。「熱門話題不僅對動員公眾參與起到重要作用,而且對一場以不斷演變和動態的身份塑造的運動來說,是一種品牌化的推廣。」

代溝
潘查達教授認為,這場抗議運動的部分問題在於,老一代人不明白學生想要什麼。
「他們中的大多數人支持這個政府,但是年輕人有相反的想法。」


圖片版權THAI NEWS PIX 抗議者們7月18日在民主紀念碑前舉行示威活動。

她說,與泰國對立政治派別支持者「紅衫軍」和「黃衫軍」以往的衝突不同,「此次衝突是老一輩和年輕一代之間的衝突。」
辛朋博士說:「一些高級官員曾發表一些傲慢自大的言論,顯示出一些老一輩人中根深蒂固的觀念,即『孩子不應該藐視長輩』。」
「(年輕人)希望管理國家的長輩們聽到他們的聲音,認真對待他們的關切。他們需要尊重。」
回到街頭,一場真正的戰鬥仍在醞釀中——但這波抗議浪潮可能產生很大影響嗎?
「抗議活動目前不會對政府造成太大影響,因為它們的規模還沒有達到那種程度,」辛朋博士說。

「(它們)值得關注,但需要更多動力。」

source: BBC
 樓主| 發表於 2020-8-30 13:54:48 | 顯示全部樓層

Three activists who break Thailand’s deepest taboo

Three activists who break Thailand’s deepest taboo
by Thai PBS World’s Political Desk,
August 20, 2020

20-profile.jpg


In the eyes of pro-royalists, Anon Nampa, Panusaya Sithijirawattanakul and Parit Chiwarak are trying to abolish the monarchy, but for fellow anti-establishment protesters they are heroes.  

The three have become leading voices in the ongoing student-led protests calling for reform of the monarchy, a move seen as breaking deeply entrenched taboos in Thailand.

Their open challenge puts them at risk of arrest for lese-majeste, the penalty for which is up to 15 years in prison. So far, none of them has been charged with violating the draconian law.

However, Anon was arrested over sedition charges on Wednesday in relation to the speech on monarchy reform he delivered on August 3 at a Harry Potter-themed rally.

Arrest warrants for him, Panusaya and another four protest leaders were also issued on Wednesday morning for their roles in the August 10 protest at Thammasat University’s Rangsit campus, during offensive remarks were allegedly made about the monarchy. They are accused of sedition under Article 116 of the Criminal Code and of breaking the pandemic prevention law.

Thai PBS World’s Political Desk looks into the trio’s backgrounds, thoughts and what they want.



Anon Nampa: The lawyer who lifted the veil

The role of the monarchy – a taboo topic in Thailand – was first raised at a rally early this month by Anon Nampa, a human rights lawyer and pro-democracy activist.

At an anti-government demonstration dubbed “Harry Potter versus You-Know-Who or He-Who-Must-Not-Be-Named”, held at Bangkok’s Democracy Monument on August 3, the activist delivered an almost unprecedented public speech on the role of Thailand’s monarchy.

Amid protesters dressed as characters from JK Rowling’s stories, the 35-year-old speaker took the stage and called for the power of the monarchy to be curbed. He claimed legislation issued by the post-coup Prayut government had given the monarch a free hand to manage the Crown’s property. An emergency decree issued at the time had also transferred two military units under HM the King’s direct supervision.

Anon stressed he was seeking reform of the constitutional monarchy, not its abolition.

Four days later, he was arrested on charges of sedition and breaching emergency law at a different rally on July 18. Bailed on condition that he does not repeat the same offences, Anon continued to make the same calls for monarchy reform at three rallies.

“We dream of a monarchy that coexists with democracy,” Anon said to cheers from a crowd of more than 10,000 people at Democracy Monument last Sunday, Thailand’s biggest protest in years. “We will keep dreaming. We must achieve this within our generation.”

Anon was born to a family of rice farmers in Roi Et’s Thung Khao Luang district and graduated in law from Ramkhamhaeng University.

He began working for human rights in 2006, the year that Thaksin Shinawatra’s government was overthrown in a military coup. Two years later, Anon began his career as a human rights lawyer before founding a legal practice to defend political prisoners and lèse majesté suspects amid the 2010 protests, earning himself a name as a lawyer for the red shirts. The high-profile activists he defended include Jatupat “Pai Dao Din” Boonpattaraksa and Amphon “Uncle SMS” Tangnoppaku.

Anon also aided Thai Lawyers for Human Rights in several lèse-majesté and human rights-related cases following the military coup of May 22, 2014.

The lawyer stepped up his political activism after the 2014 coup, co-founding the Resistant Citizen group in 2015 and joining the Democracy Restoration Group campaigning for the return of elections.

His activism turned him from law defender to law breaker. So far, he has been charged in 13 cases. Of the six cases that have concluded, three were thrown out and three resulted in fines totalling Bt2,200. Seven cases are pending, including some stemming from protests in 2018 to demand fair elections.

“It’s fine if I’m put in jail. I will still be able to conduct cases wearing a brown suit [prison uniform] and chains on my ankles. Let’s think whether that will look good or not,” said Anon, after being charged with organising a banned political gathering in 2015.

Despite his fierce and serious manner on rally stages, the pro-democracy activist is known for his humour. He starred in two protest music videos produced by Resistant Citizen – “Joob Yoei Chan-o-cha” to mock then PM and coup leader Prayut Chan-o-cha and “Yang Nee Tong Tee Khao” to protest the 2017 junta-sponsored draft of the Constitution.

In his spare time, Anon writes poetry – much of it politically inspired – and posts it on his Facebook account.


Panusaya Sithijirawattanakul: The girl with the 10-point manifesto

While Anon was the first person to publicly break the taboo, Panusaya Sithijirawattanakul is responsible for driving the monarchy debate forward.

In her closing statement at a rally last week, Panusaya called for change in the role of Thailand’s royal institution. The girl in the red blouse stepped into the national spotlight at a demonstration titled “Thammasat will not tolerate” at the university’s Rangsit campus on August 10 and read out a 10-point manifesto for monarchy reform.

Initiated by a group called the United Front of Thammasat and Demonstration, the 10 demands include scrapping the lese-majeste law, reducing public spending on the royal family and abolishing the Privy Council (King’s advisers) along with other “unnecessary units”.

Unlike Anon, Panusaya – or Roong as she is known to friends – is a new face among rally leaders.

The 21-year-old is spokesperson for the Student Union of Thailand (SUT) and is studying at Thammasat’s Faculty of Sociology and Anthropology. She first emerged in early June when she faced an arrest warrant for violating the Covid-19 emergency law by participating in an SUT-led protest over the disappearance of Wanchalerm Satsaksit, a Thai activist abducted by unknown assailants in Cambodia.

As a teenager, Panusaya had little interest in politics. According to her own account, the turning point came while she was revising for her university entrance exams and discovered interesting points about Thai political history. Curious, she sought more knowledge from her father, a keen follower of the political situation.

Panusaya says she has been tailed by authorities ever since proclaiming the manifesto and fears she will be arrested at any time.

The student activist insisted her movement was simply seeking ways to improve society and people’s quality of life, but acknowledged that the methods may shock more conservative citizens.

“When we abruptly declared [the manifesto] we were aware that many people would be very shocked. But we want to ask them to read [it] carefully and consider whether it’s true or not,” she said.

“We know there are some parts where they think like us. We can discuss and adjust [opinions].  Or if [they] disagree, we will accept the different [points of view] in order to help the country move forward,” she said.

“I know I am at risk of going to jail or being tortured or even dying,” she said. “But I don’t think this is a time to be afraid anymore.”



Parit Chiwarak: The ‘Penguin’ who won’t back down

Anti-establishment protest leader Parit “Penguin” Chiwarak had no chance to speak about the no-go topic on a rally stage. He first read about the 10-point manifesto last Saturday outside a court after being released on bail.

The 22-year-old student activist had been arrested the day before and charged with sedition and breaking disease control laws for co-organising a protest on July 18.

“My arrest must not be wasted, people must talk more publicly about the monarchy,” he said after reciting the 10-point call for royal reform delivered at Thammasat Rangsit on August 10.

“We have lifted the ceiling, there is no lowering it now.”

Parit is a co-founder and former president of the SUT and a regular participant in the youth-driven flash mobs against the Prayut government that first emerged last year.

The young activist first drew media attention at the tender age of 16. While studying at Bangkok’s prestigious Triamudom Suksa School, he unfurled a banner in front of Prayut in 2015 asking how Thai children can be kept from the path of corruption.

A year later, he won widespread support for speaking up against a draft Constitution, which threatened to deprive children of their 15 years of free education.

Since enrolling at Thammasat University’s Faculty of Political Science, his political involvement has deepened. He has often been accused of organising illegal rallies, yet he insists that the more he feels intimidated and abused by those in power, the more he wants to fight.

In his view, Thais had their future stolen in 2014, referring to the military coup and the events that followed.


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